Mobile computing is a human-machine interaction by which a computer should be transported during normal use, allowing the transmission of data, voice and video. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware and mobile software. Communication problems include ad hoc networks and infrastructure networks, as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats, and concrete technologies. The hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.
Some of the most common forms of mobile computing devices are: Other types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s, including:
Many commercial and government field forces deploy a rugged laptop with their fleet of vehicles. This requires the units to be anchored to the vehicle for driver safety, aircraft safety and ergonomics. Robust computers are evaluated for the severe vibrations associated with large service vehicles and off-road driving and harsh environmental conditions of constant professional use such as emergency medical services, fires and public safety. Other elements affecting the function in the vehicle:
Mobile security has become increasingly important in mobile computing. There is particular concern regarding the security of personal information now stored on the smartphone. More and more users and businesses are using smartphones to plan and organize their work and their privacy. In companies, these technologies cause profound changes in the organization of information systems and have therefore become the source of new risks. Indeed, smartphones collect and compile an increasing amount of sensitive information whose access must be controlled to protect the privacy of the user and the intellectual property of the company. All smartphones are privileged targets of attacks. These attacks exploit weaknesses related to smartphones that can come from wireless telecommunication means such as WiFi and GSM networks. There are also attacks that exploit the software vulnerabilities of the web browser and the operating system. Finally, there are forms of malware that rely on the poor knowledge of average users. Different security countermeasures are developed and applied to smartphones, from security in different layers of software to the dissemination of information to end users. There are good practices to observe at all levels, from design to use, to the development of operating systems, software layers and downloadable applications.
Several categories of portable computing devices can run on batteries but are generally not classified as laptops: laptops, PDAs, ultra portable PCs (UMPC), tablets and smartphones.
Wireless data connections used in mobile computing take three general forms. The cellular data service uses GSM, CDMA or GPRS technologies, 3G networks such as W-CDMA, EDGE or CDMA2000. and more recently 4G networks such as LTE, LTE-Advanced. These networks are usually available within range of commercial cell towers. Wi-Fi connections offer higher performance, whether on a private corporate network or accessed by public hotspots, and have a typical range of 100 feet indoors and up to 1000 feet outdoors . Satellite Internet access covers areas where cellular and Wi-Fi are not available and can be installed wherever the user has a direct view of the location of the satellite, which means for satellites in geostationary orbit an unobstructed view of the southern sky. Some enterprise deployments combine networks from multiple cellular networks or use a mix of cellular, Wi-Fi, and satellite. A mobile virtual private network (VPN mobile) not only handles security issues, but automatically executes multiple network connections and keeps active application connections to avoid crashes or data loss during network transitions or loss of coverage.