Regulatory body

A regulating or regulating or oscillating member , in timepieces , dispenses the period of time required for its subdivision in seconds , minutes and hours for the indication of the time and the date and any other indication of a desired horological complication . Its headings are:

  • For clocks and clocks: the foliot, the pendulum;
  • For mechanical watches: the assembly formed by the balance and the hairspring after the delicate operation of their assembly, called adjustment ;
  • For electronic watches: it can be a rocker-motor, a sound resonator or a crystal of quartz.

Clocks and clocks

The clock and the pendulum use foliot 1 or pendulum , with certain exceptions in the very low ( Quartz ) and any premium ( Atmos of Jaeger-LeCoultre ).

Mechanical watches

The balance / balance spring assembly , once connected by the delicate adjustment operation is used in conjunction with the anchor escapement .

Electronic Watches

For their regulating organs, the term “oscillator” is also used.

Sound resonator (tuning fork)

The first system using the tuning fork effect produced in large quantities was the Accutron de Bulova 2 , 3 , using a simple tuning fork without the effect of Piezoelectricity .

Thereafter, the timepiece consisted of a small metal part with two branches on which were mounted the crystals of quartz whose vibrations, maintained by an electromagnet, actuated a ratchet which, tooth after tooth, pushed 300 At 720 times per second, the first wheel of the gear train.

Some tuning forks were made of quartz crystal also.


  • Rocker arm 4 , 5
  • 1966: the first watch movement with an engine balancer: the Dynotron developed in Switzerland, industrialized and marketed under the names 9150 and 9154 by Ebauches Electroniques SA (ESA) or Ebauches Electroniques Marin (EEM), a subsidiary created by ASUAG , now EM Electronic SA (Swatch Group 6 ).

Crystal of quartz

Related article: Quartz .

The first watch movement in Quartz, caliber Beta 21 , was developed in Switzerland by Ebauches SA in 1966 after three years of research and development. It was only marketed after the industrial developments of the Japanese watch industry, by the Omega brand , in a watch certified by the COSC , as well as 20 other brands that contributed to its industrialization.


In Switzerland, the ASUAG production of balances and spirals was concentrated in the sub-holdings in 1931 : The Fiber Reinforced Factories (FBR) , respectively The Reinforced Spiral Factories (Nivarox) 7 , Of the Swatch Group , under the grouping: Nivarox SA . The development of electronic movements was initially carried out by the Center Electronique Horloger. The parts used by the Swiss Quartz calibers are still produced by and / or under license from EM Electronic SA .


  • [3]  [ archive ] Glossary of the Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry FH
  • Literature: The Development Of The Accutron Watch Mechanism And An Interview With William Ogle : [4]  [ archive ]
  • [5]  [ archive ] History of the Evolution of Electric Clocks
  • [6]  [ archive ] Integrated Circuits and Quartz Watchmakers: Swiss Chronometry Society
  • [7]  [ archive ] Worldtempus: Chronology of events in the field of electric, electronic and atomic watchmaking
  • [8]  [ archive ] Worldtempus: Electrical Circuits
  • [9]  [ archive ] Wordtempus Accutron
  • Illustrated professional dictionary of watchmaking (Berner dictionary)
  • [10]  [ archive ] pdf calibration details 9150 EEM


  1. ↑ The foliot is not an oscillator to speak because it does not have its own oscillation period ,, but that it is “the seat of a periodic phenomenon” caused and maintained by a pallet yard Can excuse this designation which facilitates the categorical grouping used by certain authors, in watchmaking such as Radko Kyncl, Montres et clocks , Paris, Gründ, coll.  “Encyclopedia illustrated, ( ISBN  2-7000-1851-6 ).
  2. ↑ The Accutron of Bulova  [ archive ] .
  3. ↑ operation of the Accutron  [ archive ] .
  4. ↑ ” Archive • Wikiwix • • Google • What to do? ) .
  5. ↑ ” Archive • Wikiwix • • Google • What to do? ).
  6. ↑ [1]  [ archive ] .
  7. ↑ [2]  [ archive ]

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