A marker, a fineliner, a marker, a marker, a felt marker, a flow marker, texta (in Australia), a sketch (in India) or a koki (in South Africa), is a pen that has its own ink-source and a tip made of porous pressed fibers such as felt. A permanent marker consists of a container (glass, aluminum or plastic) and a core of absorbent material. This filling serves as a support for the ink. The top of the marker contains the tip that was made earlier of a hard felt material, and a cap to prevent the marker from drying out. Until the early 1990s, the most commonly used solvents for ink were toluene and xylene. These two substances are both harmful and characterized by a very strong odor. Today, ink is usually made from alcohols (eg 1-propanol, 1-butanol, diacetone alcohol and cresols). Markers can be waterproof, dry erase or permanent.
Lee Newman patented a marker in felt in 1910. In 1926, Benjamin Paskach patented a “fountain brush” as he called it which consisted of a sponge handle containing various colors of paint. Markers of this kind began to be popularized with the sale of Sidney Rosenthal’s Magic Marker (1953) which consisted of a glass ink tube with a felt wick. In 1958, the use of felt tip markers was commonplace for a variety of applications such as lettering, labeling and poster creation. The year 1962 led to the development of the modern fiber-pointed pen (unlike the marker, which usually has a thicker point) by Yukio Horie of the Tokyo Stationery Company (which later became Pentel).
The marker tank, which contains the ink, is formed of polyester. The “felt” used for the tip is usually made of highly compressed synthetic fibers or porous ceramics. Toluol and xylol have been used as solvents for the dye and are still used for indelible ink in permanent markers. Because of their toxicity, they have often been replaced by less critical substances such as cyclic alkyl or alkylene carbonates (such as propylene carbonate) in other types of markers. The water content of the ink can reach 10%. In addition to the solvents and the dye itself, the ink may contain additives (eg, nonylphenylpolyglycol ether, alkylpolyglycol ether, polyglycol fatty acid ester, or fatty alcohol ethoxalate) and preservatives (e.g. phenylphenol and its sodium salt 6-acetoxy-2). 4-dimethyl-m-dioxane).
Permanent markers are porous pens that can write on surfaces such as glass, plastic, wood, metal and stone. The ink is generally resistant to abrasion and water and can last for many years. However, depending on the surface and the marker used, the marks can often be removed with vigorous brushing or chemicals such as acetone.
Highlighters are a form of marker used to highlight and cover existing writing while leaving the writing legible. They are usually produced in neon colors to enable color coding, as well as to attract buyers.
A whiteboard marker, or a dry erase marker in some locations, uses erasable ink, designed for use on a smooth, non-porous writing surface, for temporary writing with overhead projectors, whiteboards, and so on. . They are designed so that the user can easily erase marks with a damp cloth, tissue, tissue, baby wipe, or other easily cleaned or disposable items. Generally, people use fabrics to do it, but others use items like paper, clothes, some even use their bare hands to wipe them. The erasable ink does not contain toxic xylene and / or toluene chemical compounds as used in permanent markers. Wet erase markers are another version that is used on overhead projectors, billboards, whiteboards and other non-porous surfaces.
Special security markers, with fluorescent but otherwise invisible inks, are used to mark valuables in the event of a break-in. The owner of a stolen but recovered object can be determined using ultraviolet light to make the writing visible.