Bring your own device

Bring your own device (BYOD) – also called bring your own technology (BYOT), bring your own phone (BYOP) and bring your own personal computer (BYOPC) – reference to the policy allowing employees to bring personal devices (computers) laptops), tablets and smartphones) at their workplace, and use these devices to access information and business applications. The phenomenon is commonly known as computer consumerization. BYOD is making significant progress in the business world, with approximately 75% of employees in high-growth markets such as Brazil and Russia and 44% in developed markets already using their own technology at work. Surveys have indicated that companies (more…)


Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (shortwave UHF radio waves in the 2.4 to 2.485 GHz ISM band) from fixed and mobile devices and creating networks. personnel (PAN). Invented by Dutch electrical engineer Jaap Haartsen, working for telecom provider Ericsson in 1994, it was originally designed as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), which has more than 30,000 member companies in the telecommunications, IT, networking and consumer electronics fields. The IEEE has standardized Bluetooth as IEEE 802.15.1, but no longer maintains the standard. Bluetooth (more…)


The BlackDog is a standalone handheld computer with a built-in biometric fingerprint reader, developed in 2005 by Realm Systems, which is plugged in and powered from the USB port of a host computer using its peripherals for seizure and exit. It is a mobile personal server that allows a user to use Linux, its applications and data on any computer with a USB port. The host computer’s monitor, keyboard, mouse, and Internet connection are used by the BlackDog for the duration of the session. Because the system is stand-alone and isolated from the host, requiring no additional installation, it is possible (more…)

Barcode system

A barcode system is a network of hardware and software, consisting mainly of mobile computers, printers, handheld scanners, infrastructure, and supporting software. Barcode systems are used to automate data collection when manual recording is neither timely nor cost effective. Bar code systems are not radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, although companies that provide bar codes often provide RFID hardware and many companies use both technologies as part of management systems more resources.

In 1948, Bernard Silver was a graduate student at the Drexel Institute of Technology in Philadelphia. A store owner in the local food chain made a request to the Drexel (more…)

Associativity-based routing

Associative-based routing (commonly known as ABR) is a mobile routing protocol invented for wireless ad hoc networks or also known as ad hoc mobile networks (MANETs) and wireless mesh networks. ABR was invented in 1993, filed a US patent in 1996 and was granted the patent in 1999. ABR was invented by Chai Keong Toh during his PhD. at the University of Cambridge. In the 1990s, our Internet was still largely wired. Toh was working on another Internet – that of a mobile Internet quickly deployable, without infrastructure, self-organized and self-configurable. The challenges in such a network are the mobility of (more…)

Mobile computing

Mobile computing is a human-machine interaction by which a computer should be transported during normal use, allowing the transmission of data, voice and video. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware and mobile software. Communication problems include ad hoc networks and infrastructure networks, as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats, and concrete technologies. The hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.

Some of the most common forms of mobile computing devices are: Other types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s, including:

Many commercial and government field forces deploy (more…)


The ZP-150 was one of the early commercially available portable computers. It was released in late 1984 by Zenith data systems and sold by Heathkit.

The ZP-150 was offered for US$1995 when bundled with the $800 Microsoft Works software, but could be found in the Fall 1985 Heathkit catalog for US$1195. The price came down to $999 in the Winter 1986 edition of the same catalog and $699 in the Fall 1987 edition, as it was being phased out with the release of the Z-181 and Z-183. The main target market was the U.S. government and “the mobile executive”, for on-site applications. (more…)

Zorba (computer)

The Zorba was a laptop computer running the CP / M operating system built in 1983 and 1984. It was originally manufactured by Telcon Industries of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, a company specializing in the manufacture of telecommunications equipment . The Zorba was one of the last CP / M computers on the market. At the time of its introduction, Kaypro and Osborne machines already dominated this market. The introduction of Compaq Portable, compatible with IBM PC and running MS-DOS, sealed the fate of CP / M machines.

The Zorba was one of the last 8-bit notebooks running the CP / M operating (more…)

Xerox NoteTaker

The Xerox NoteTaker is an early laptop. It was developed at Xerox PARC in Palo Alto, California, in 1978. Although it did not come into production, and only a dozen prototypes were built, it heavily influenced the design of the Osborne 1 laptops and Compaq.

The NoteTaker was developed by a team consisting of Adele Goldberg, Douglas Fairbairn and Larry Tesler. He draws heavily on previous research by Alan Kay, who had already developed the Dynabook project. While the Dynabook was a concept for a transportable computer that was impossible to implement with available technology, the NoteTaker was meant to show what (more…)

TRS-80 Model 100

The TRS-80 Model 100 is a notebook computer introduced in 1983. It is one of the first notebooks with a keyboard and LCD display, in a battery case of the size and the shape of a notebook. It was manufactured by Kyocera and originally sold in Japan as Kyotronic 85. Although a slow seller for Kyocera, the rights to the machine were purchased by Tandy Corporation. The computer was sold through Radio Shack stores in the United States and Canada and affiliated dealers in other countries. It has become one of the most popular models of the company, with more than (more…)

Table computer

A desktop computer, a desktop PC, or a tabletop is a class of devices in a large-screen, all-in-one portable computer with an internal battery. It can either be used on the top of a table, hence the name, or worn around the house. Desktop computers have a multi-touch screen of 18 inches or more, a battery capable of performing at least 2 hours of stand-alone work and a full desktop operating system, such as Windows 10. They typically come with user-activated touch-sensitive games and apps, and typically marketed as home entertainment devices.

Manufacturers of some desktop computers provide a specialized graphical user (more…)


The ST BOOK is a portable computer released in 1991 by Atari. It was based on the Atari STE. The ST BOOK was vastly more portable than the previous Atari portable, the STacy, but it sacrificed several features in order to achieve this: notably the backlight, and internal floppy disc drive. The screen is highly reflective. It supports the 640×400 1-bit mono mode only and no external video port was provided. For its limitations, it gained some popularity as being the most utterly portable “real” computer of the day (slim, light, quiet, reliable, and with a long battery life, even by (more…)

Sord IS-11

The Sord IS-11 was a lightweight, lightweight and portable A4 computer. The IS-11 (‘IS’ stands for ‘Integrated Software’) did not have an operating system, but was provided with integrated word processing software, spreadsheet, file manager and communication software. The machine was manufactured by Sord Computer Corporation and published in 1983. It was then followed by the IS-11B and the IS-11C.

The IS-11 had a CMOS version of the Z80A running at 3.4 MHz with 32-64 KiB NVRAM and 64 KiB ROM. The non-backlit monochrome LCD screen allowed 40 characters × 8 lines or 256 × 64 pixels. The data was stored on (more…)


A smartphone is a mobile phone and a personal computer. Unlike traditional phones and “basic” cell phones, smartphones offer extensive computing capabilities, including many third-party software applications (mobile applications) acquired through an application store and high-speed Internet access (mobile broadband). ). In addition to the capacity of high-speed Internet service (usually long-term (LTE)), most, if not all, smart phones also support Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and satellite navigation; and usually come with two to three digital cameras. The sensors usually included on a smartphone include an accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer, and provide one to two LEDs for lighting and photographic flash (more…)


The SIMpad is a portable computer developed by the company Keith & Koep by order of Siemens AG, with an 8.4″ TFT touchscreen. Commonly used with wireless network cards, it was marketed as a device to browse the World Wide Web. Initially announced in January 2001 at the Consumer Electronics Show, the SIMpad was not very popular in the mainstream US market.There are five known model variants, all out of production:The OpenSIMpad project offers a SIMpad related Wiki where one can find information about Linux, Windows CE, hardware and mods.The commercial website offers a licensed Windows CE 4.2 “.net” bug (more…)

Seequa Chameleon

The Seequa Cameleon was an inflatable personal computer from the early 1980s; he was able to run DOS and CP / M-80 operating systems. It did so by having both Zilog Z-80 and Intel 8088 microprocessors. Although it worked under MS-DOS and approached the hardware capabilities of the IBM PC, it was very compatible with PCs, able to run programs such as Sub Logic Flight Simulator; but has not been a huge success in the market. Seequa Computers was based in Annapolis, Maryland. It was founded by David Gardner (president) and Dave Egli (CEO), one of David’s business professors at the (more…)

Portal (computer)

R2E Portal CCMC was a portable micro-computer designed and marketed by the research and development department of the French company R2E Micral and officially appeared in September 1980 at Sicob in Paris. It is almost 8 months before the release of the American Osborne 1 (April 1981). The portal was requested by a CCMC company specializing in payroll and accounting. A few hundred copies were sold between 1980 and 1983. Extremely rare, no museum has a portal, two are in private collections. The company R2E Micral is also known for having designed “the first commercial computer, non-kit based on a microprocessor”, (more…)

Poqet PC

The PC Poqet is a very small IBM PC-compatible notebook, introduced in 1989 by Poqet Computer Corporation for $ 2,000. The computer was abandoned after Fujitsu Ltd. bought Poqet Computer Corp. It was the first IBM compatible PC subnotebook note format computer that ran MS-DOS. The Poqet PC is powered by two AA batteries. Through the use of aggressive power management, which includes shutting down the processor between strikes, the batteries can power the computer for a period of time ranging from a few weeks to a few months, depending on usage. The computer also uses an “instant” function, so that (more…)


ZEOS (ZEOS International, Ltd.) was a PC manufacturer based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Originally from New Brighton, Minnesota, and founded by Gregory E. Herrick, the company was incorporated in Minnesota in 1981. Prior to manufacturing PCs, the company’s name was NPC Electronics. NPC was a contract assembly company best known for developing a transmitter called Radio Realty. Marketed primarily to real estate brokers, this product allowed potential buyers to listen to and listen to pre-recorded information on a property listing while parked in front of the home. Radio Realty was sold in the early 1980s as NPC began developing, manufacturing and selling (more…)

Outbound laptop

The Outbound Laptop is an Apple Macintosh compatible notebook. It is powered by a Motorola 68000 processor at 15 MHz. Later versions increased the clock speed to 20 MHz. Outbound Systems Inc. was located in Boulder, Colorado; but, because of their kangaroo logo, many believed it was an Australian company.

The Outbound laptop was introduced in 1989 and was significantly lighter, just over 4 kg, and easier to carry than Apple’s own Apple Macintosh released at about the same time. Due to Apple’s refusal to allow the Macintosh Toolbox in ROM, outgoing users had to install a Macrom ROM to run the (more…)

Osborne Vixen

The Osborne Vixen was a “commendable” laptop computer announced by Osborne Computer Corporation in November 1984, following its Osborne 1 and Osborne Executive system. The Vixen had a 4MHz Zilog Z80 microprocessor, with 64K of dynamic random access memory (DRAM). It had a 7-inch diagonal amber screen that could display 24 lines per 80 columns of mapped video. It used two 400-kilobyte hard drives, using double-sided 5.25-inch double-sided floppy disks, weighing about 18 pounds, and the contemporary advertisement indicated that it could fit under the seat of an airplane, with dimensions of 12 out of 16. When it came out, the (more…)

Osborne PC prototype

In the early summer of 1983, an effort was made to produce a version of the Osborne Executive that would be compatible with the IBM PC. Although the company’s partners provided $ 9 million in funding in April and another $ 11 million in June, Osborne was unable to raise $ 20 million more to market the product. IBM compatible. A “team of tigers” was formed, mainly to create a prototype circuit board compatible with DOS and a front frame to adapt to the changes of connectors. The design used many parts of the executive, including disk drives, display, chassis, power, (more…)

Osborne Executive

Osborne Executive was the expected successor to the Osborne 1 laptop already marketed by Osborne Computer Corporation. The executive was a collection of good features of the Osborne 1 and corrected some of the flaws of its predecessor. The Osborne Executive, like the Osborne 1, came with application software. The WordStar word processor, the SuperCalc spreadsheet, and the CBASIC and MBASIC programming languages ​​- all packages that were the main applications in their respective niches at the time – had a retail value of over $ 2,495. The disc players and the built-in 7-inch CRT were covered by the keyboard when (more…)

Osborne 1

Osborne 1 was the first commercially successful portable microcomputer launched on April 3, 1981 by Osborne Computer Corporation. It weighed 10.7 kg (24.5 lb), cost US $ 1,795 and used the CP / M 2.2 operating system. Powered directly from a power outlet because it did not have an on-board battery, it was still considered a portable device because it could be carried by hand when it was packed. The computer came with a lot of software almost equivalent to the value of the machine itself, a practice adopted by other CP / M PC vendors at the time. Competitors such (more…)

NEC UltraLite

The NEC UltraLite was a “portable” size MS-DOS laptop. PC Magazine introduced the UltraLite on its cover in November 1988 and soon after, reporters began to refer to the A4-sized computer as a “notebook” to distinguish it from larger and heavier notebooks. the time.

The product was originally developed by a telecommunications engineering team from NEC Japan that was trying to make an inexpensive light terminal for programming PABX systems. In 1988, while NEC was trying to create products to update its best-selling MultiSpeed, NEC’s engineering team in charge of personal computer development introduced the UltraLite to a product management team from (more…)


MojoPac was an application virtualization product from RingCube Technologies. MojoPac turns any USB 2.0 storage device into a portable computing environment. The term “MojoPac” is used by the company to refer to the software application, the virtualized environment running in that software, and the USB storage device containing the relevant software and applications. MojoPac supports popular applications such as Firefox and Microsoft Office, and is also powerful enough to run popular PC games such as World of Warcraft, Minecraft and Half-Life 2. The RingCube website is currently being transferred to Citrix, which apparently bought the company and stopped MojoPac.

To initially configure (more…)

Microcomputer revolution

The microcomputer revolution (or computer revolution or digital revolution) is an expression used to describe the rapid progress of microprocessor-based computers, from esoteric leisure projects to the trivialization of houses in industrial societies during the 1970s and 1980. Prior to 1977, the only population contact with computers was utility bills, banking and payroll services, or computer-generated spam. In a decade, computers have become common consumer goods. The advent of affordable personal computers has had a lasting impact on education, business, music, social interaction and entertainment.

The ancestors mini-computers of the modern personal computer used the technology of integrated circuit (chip) early, which (more…)

Macintosh Portable

The Macintosh Portable is a notebook computer designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from September 1989 to October 1991. This is the first battery-powered Macintosh that is receiving much enthusiasm from critics, but sales to customers are rather low. It featured a fast, accurate, and cost-effective, fast-matrix black-and-white LCD display in an articulated design that covered the keyboard when the machine was not in use. The notebook was one of the first consumer notebooks to use an active matrix panel, and only the most expensive of the original PowerBook range, the PowerBook 170, used one, because of the high (more…)


The Livescribe paper-based computing platform consists of a digital pen, digital paper, software applications, and developer tools. Central to the Livescribe platform is the smartpen, a ballpoint pen with an embedded computer and digital audio recorder. When used with Anoto digital paper, it records what it writes for later uploading to a computer, and synchronizes those notes with any audio it has recorded. This allows users to replay portions of a recording by tapping on the notes they were taking at the time the recording was made. It is also possible to select which portion of a recording to replay by (more…)

Laptop-tablet convergence

The convergence computer-tablet describes the trend of the last years to converge technologically laptops and tablets. In 2012, Windows 8 was released, which included the Metro UI, a touch-sensitive UI framework for desktop applications. Microsoft has encouraged application developers to develop Metro versions of their applications. In 2011, Canonical announced Ubuntu Touch, an attempt to bring Ubuntu to mobile devices such as phones and tablets. He is still developing. In 2014, Google announced that by the end of 2014, Chrome OS would allow Android applications to run, which means Chromebooks and Chromeboxes would be able to access regular web applications, packaged (more…)


Kaypro Corporation was an American home/personal computer manufacturer of the 1980s. The company was founded by Non-Linear Systems to develop computers to compete with the then-popular Osborne 1 portable microcomputer. Kaypro produced a line of rugged, “luggable” CP/M-based computers sold with an extensive software bundle which supplanted its competitors and quickly became one of the top selling personal computer lines of the early 1980s. While exceptionally loyal to its original consumer base, Kaypro was slow to adapt to the changing computer market and the advent of IBM PC compatible technology. It faded from the mainstream before the end of the decade (more…)

IBM Portable Personal Computer

The IBM Personal Computer 5155 Model 68 was a laptop developed by IBM after the success of the Compaq Portable Suitcase. It was released in February 1984 and was eventually replaced by IBM Convertible.

The laptop was essentially a PC / XT motherboard, transplanted into a compaq-style compressive package. The system had 256 kilobytes of memory (expandable to 512 KB on the motherboard), an added CGA card connected to a monochrome amber internal composite monitor, and one or two 360 KB floppy drives. Unlike the Compaq Portable, which used a two-mode monitor and a special display card, IBM used a stock CGA (more…)

IBM PC Convertible

The IBM PC Convertible is the first laptop published by IBM. Released on April 3, 1986, the convertible was also the first IBM computer to use the 3.5-inch floppy disk format that has become the industry standard. Like modern laptops, it included power management and the ability to run on batteries. It was the continuation of the IBM Portable and was the model number 5140. It was replaced in 1991 by the IBM PS / 2 L40 SX, and in Japan by IBM Personal System / 55note, which was the predecessor of the ThinkPad .

In 1983, IBM engineers reportedly developed a (more…)

IBM 5100

The IBM 5100 laptop is a laptop (one of the first) introduced in September 1975, six years before the IBM personal computer. This is the evolution of a prototype called SCAMP (Special APL Machine Portable) that was developed at the IBM Scientific Center in Palo Alto in 1973. In January 1978, IBM announced IBM 5110, its most important cousin, and in February 1980 IBM announced The 5100 was removed in March 1982. When the IBM PC was introduced in 1981, it was originally designated as IBM 5150, putting it in the “5100” series, although its architecture was not not directly from (more…)

Hyperion (computer)

The Hyperion is an old laptop that rivaled the Compaq Portable to be the first compatible IBM notebook. It was marketed by Infotech Co. of Ottawa, a subsidiary of Bytec Management Corp., which acquired the designer and manufacturer Dynalogic in January 1983. In 1984, the design was authorized by Commodore International in a move that was intended as a “Radical change of position”. “and a signal that Commodore would soon dominate the PC-compatible market.While computers are” hand-assembled from kits “provided by Bytec and presented alongside the Commodore 900 at a German show as their first laptop, they were never sold by (more…)

Husky (computer)

The DVW Husky is a rugged UK handheld released in 1981 by DVW Electronics. The Husky has been designed to be used in difficult conditions, such as wet and cold weather, by users such as the military. It is waterproof and can be placed from a considerable height on a hard surface without being damaged. The computer is handheld, with a membrane keyboard similar to that of the ZX81, and a 32×4 alphanumeric LCD. The Husky CPU is compatible with the Z80, and the computer incorporates a non-volatile base memory, 32K and 16K ROM. It was originally manufactured in response to (more…)


The HP 95LX Palmtop PC (F1000A, F1010A), also known as project Jaguar, was Hewlett Packard’s first MS-DOS-based pocket computer or personal digital assistant, introduced in April 1991 in collaboration with Lotus Development Corporation. It can be seen as successor to a series of larger portable PCs like the HP 110 and HP 110 Plus. The HP 95LX had an NEC V20 CPU (an Intel 8088 clone running at 5.37 MHz) with an Intel Corporation System on a chip (SoC) device. It cannot be considered completely PC-compatible because of its quarter-CGA (MDA) resolution LCD screen. It ran Microsoft’s MS-DOS version 3.22 and (more…)

Grundy NewBrain

Grundy NewBrain was a microcomputer sold in the early 1980s by Grundy Business Systems Ltd of Teddington and Cambridge, England.

The NewBrain project was launched in 1978 when Sinclair Radionics began working with Mike Wakefield as a designer and Basil Smith as a software engineer. This project was intended to create competition for Apple and did not pay much attention to Sinclair’s focus on inexpensive consumer products. When it became clear to Sinclair that the NewBrain could not be priced at less than £ 100 he was thinking about the ZX80 being developed by his other company, Science of Cambridge Ltd. The (more…)

Epson PX-8 Geneva

The Epson PX-8 aka Geneva was a small laptop manufactured by Epson Corporation in the mid-1980s. It had a Z80-compatible microprocessor, and ran a customized version of the CP / M-80 operating system as well as various applications to from a pair of ROM cartridge slots that were treated as drives. For file storage, there was a built-in microcassette reader. The PX-8 did not have an internal disk drive and allowed partitioning of memory into application memory and a RAM disk, or an external 60-KB or 120-KB intelligent RAM disk module (64 KB and 128 KB). kb). used for the processor). (more…)

Epson PX-4

The Epson PX-4 (HC-40 or HX-40) is a portable CP/M based computer introduced in 1985. The screen was 40×8 characters physical, but 80×25 or 40×50 virtual, making it almost compatible with the Epson PX-8 Geneva. It was operated from a NiCD battery pack or four penlight batteries. It was targeted as successor of the Epson HX-20 portable, which was very popular with field engineers. Another feature of the PX-4 was its high modularity. Inheriting the ROM capsules from the Epson PX-8 Geneva, it added a cartridge bay (similar but incompatible with the Epson HX-20), for which Epson offered several printers, micro-cassette (more…)

Eagle Computer

Eagle Computer of Los Gatos, California, was an early microcomputer manufacturing company. Spun off from Audio-Visual Laboratories (AVL), it first sold a line of popular CP/M computers which were highly praised in the computer magazines of the day. After the IBM PC was launched, Eagle produced the Eagle 1600 series, which ran MS-DOS but were not true clones. When it became evident that the buying public wanted actual clones of the IBM PC, even if a non-clone had better features, Eagle responded with a line of clones, including a portable. The Eagle PCs were always rated highly in computer magazines.

The AVL (more…)


DYSEAC was the second Standards Electronic Automatic Computer. (See SEAC.) DYSEAC was a first-generation computer built by the National Bureau of Standards for the US Army Signal Corps. It was housed in a truck, making it one of the first portable computers (perhaps the first). It went into operation in April 1954. DYSEAC used 900 vacuum tubes and 24,500 crystal diodes. It had a memory of 512 words of 45 bits each (plus one parity bit), using mercury delay line memory. Memory access time was 48–384 microseconds.

The addition time was 48 microseconds and the multiplication/division time was 2112 microseconds. These times (more…)

Dulmont Magnum

The Dulmont Magnum is an early laptop computer designed and marketed by Dulmont Pty Ltd in Australia in the early 1980s. (Dulmont was a joint venture between Australian power line equipment manufacturer, Dulmison Pty Ltd, and the Australian subsidiary of their Belgian electrical utility customer, Tramont Ltd.) The Magnum was also known internationally as the Kookaburra, and was sold from 1982 to 1986. The company found itself undercapitalized as it sought to enter the international market and faced increased competition from other laptops. It was taken over twice, with Dulmont eventually taken over by Time Office Computers (Manufacturing) Pty. Ltd, who (more…)

Desktop replacement computer

A desktop replacement computer (DTR) is a personal computer that provides all the features of a desktop computer while staying mobile. These are often bigger and larger laptops or, in some cases, 2-in-1 PCs with a form factor and a tablet-like interface. Due to their increased size, this computer class typically includes more powerful components and a larger display than that typically used in small laptops and may have relatively little (if any) battery capacity. Some use a limited range of desktop components to provide better performance at the expense of battery life. They are sometimes referred to as desktops, a (more…)

Data General-One

The Data General-One (DG-1) was a portable personal computer introduced in 1984 by the company Data General minicomputers.

The 9-pound, battery-powered Data-One 1984 server ran on MS-DOS and had two 3½ “floppy disks, a full-stroke 79-key keyboard, 128K to 512K RAM, and a monochrome LCD capable of 80 or 80 times 25 characters or complete CGA graphics (640 and 200 times) It was a notebook comparable to the capabilities of desktop computers of the time.

The Data General-One offered several features compared to contemporary laptops. For example, the popular 1983 Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100, a non-PC compatible machine, was sized in a (more…)

Corona Data Systems

Corona Data Systems, later renamed Cordata, was an American personal computer company. It was one of the earliest IBM PC compatible computer system companies. Manufacturing was primarily done by Daewoo of Korea, which became a major investor in the company and ultimately the owner.

Founded in 1982 by Robert Harp, who previously helped found Vector Graphic. The original Corona PC was released in 1983. By 1984, Corona employed 280 people.

Corona claimed “Our systems run all software that conforms to IBM PC programming standards. And the most popular software does.” In early 1984, IBM sued Corona and Eagle Computer for copyright violation of (more…)

Compaq Portable series

The first computers from Compaq were “lunchbox” or “luggable” laptops, and as such belong to the Compaq Portable series. These computers measured about 1 time and 1 foot on the side, and were approximately. 2½ feet wide. As products evolved, laptops and laptops were created to a new level of portability that blew the market. Some of the notebooks (Portable and Portable II) had CRT monitors, while others (Portable III and Portable 386) had flat, monochrome displays, usually amber in color. Laptops came / could come with internal hard drives on 0.5 “springs, floppy drives, usually 5” drives at double or (more…)

Compaq Portable III

The Compaq Portable III is a PC / AT compatible computer released by Compaq Computer Corporation in 1987. It was announced to be much smaller and lighter than previous x86-PC notebooks, but it was still quite large by today’s standards . Its selling price was 4999 USD for a model equipped with 12 MHz Intel 80286, 640 KB of RAM, 1.2 MB of 5.25 “floppy disk, 20/40/60 MB of hard disk, and a 10” plasma gas screen amber color or 5799 usd with the updated 40 MB hard drive.

There was also an optional ISA expansion chassis for 2 full-length 16-bit ISA (more…)

Compaq Portable II

The Compaq Portable II was the third product in the Compaq portable series to be introduced by Compaq Computer Corporation. Released in 1986 at a price of $ 3499, the Portable II has improved a lot compared to its predecessors. It included an 8 MHz processor, and was lighter and smaller than the Compaq Portable. There were four models of Compaq Portable II. Base Model 1 shipped a 5.25-inch diskette drive and 256 KB of RAM, while Model 2 added a 5.25-inch diskette drive and sold for $ 3599. Model 3 ships with a disk Hard 10 MB in addition to (more…)

Compaq Portable 486

Der Compaq Portable 486 ist ein Computer, der 1992 von Compaq Computer Corporation herausgegeben wurde. Der Verkaufspreis am Ausgang mit einer Festplatte von 120 MB betrug 5899 USD. Bei einem 210-MB-Festplattenmodell lag der Preis bei 6899 USD, war aber im Mai 1992 zunächst nicht verfügbar. Beide Modelle sind mit einem Intel 80486DX2-Prozessor mit 66 MHz, 4 MB DRAM (72-pol SIMM), 1,44 MB 3,5 “, 120 – 1000 MB Festplatte (P-ATA), Helligkeitssteuerung, SCSI-Anschluss für CD-ROM oder Band <! – eine Erweiterungsbox für zwei Steckplätze IBM-AT-ISA-Karten sind verfügbar -> Die Umgebungsgrenzwerte sind:

Compaq Portable 386

The Compaq Portable 386 was a computer marketed by Compaq Computer Corporation in 1987. Its selling price at the exit was 12,000-14,000 USD for a model equipped with an Intel 80386 processor of 20 MHz, 2 MB of RAM, 16 KB ROM, 1.2 MB 5¼-floppy disk, 40 or 100 MB hard disk and 10 “amber plasma-gas display The power supply is provided by a power outlet, a battery exists but only stores the configuration BIOS Option for Intel 80387 (FPU) It is possible to add an additional modem or RS232 port, and the expansion card can accept memory expansion cards for (more…)

Compaq Portable

The Compaq Portable is a laptop that was one of the first 100% compatible IBM systems. It was the first product of Compaq Computer Corporation, followed by others in the Compaq portable series and later in the Compaq Deskpro series.

The Compaq Portable was announced in November 1982 and first marketed in March 1983 for US $ 2,995 with a 5¼ “360 kbyte disk drive at mid-height or $ 3,590 for dual-disk drives. computer was a first all-in-one, becoming available two years after Osborne 1 and Kaypro II based on CP / M, the same year as the MS-DOS (but not fully (more…)

Compaq LTE

The Compaq LTE was a line of notebook computers made by Compaq, introduced in 1989. The first models, Compaq LTE and Compaq LTE 286, were among the first computers to be close to the size of a paper notebook, stimulating the use of the term “notebook” to describe a smaller notebook. They were also among the first to include both built-in hard drives and floppy drives, delivering performance comparable to today’s desktop machines.

The two original LTE models differed mainly in the availability of the processor; However, the 286 comes with a standard 40 MB hard drive instead of the 20 MB (more…)

Compaq Concerto

The Compaq Concerto was a laptop computer made by Compaq, introduced in 1993. Concerto was the first tablet computer manufactured by Compaq on a large scale.

There were three models of Concerto, varying in the capacity of the hard disk, and the speed of the processor. All had 4MB RAM soldered to the motherboard, which was expandable to 20MB using proprietary memory modules. There were two processor options: Intel 486SL @ 25 MHz or 33 MHz. The 25 MHz model was available with a 120 MB or 240 MB IDE hard drive and the 33 MHz model had a 240 MB IDE (more…)

Commodore SX-64

The Commodore SX-64, also known as the Executive 64, or VIP-64 in Europe, is a transportable, suitcase / suitcase-sized version of the popular Commodore 64 home computer and the first color laptop. The SX-64 features a built-in five-inch composite monitor and a built-in 1541 floppy drive. It weighs 10.5 kg (23 lbs). The machine is carried by its robust handle, which also serves as an adjustable support. It was announced in January 1983 and released a year later, at $ 995 ().

Aside from its built-in features and different form factors, there are several other differences between the SX-64 and the regular (more…)

Columbia Data Products

Columbia Data Products (CDP) is a company that produced some of the first IBM PC clones. It has declined in this market after only a few years, and later reinvented itself as a software development company.

Columbia Data Products was founded in 1976 in Columbia, Maryland. In 1980, Columbia Data Products manufactured computers based on the Z80 model, including the Commander 900 series, which included several models, some of which were multiprocessor and had graphics capabilities.

CDP introduced MPC 1600 “Multi Personal Computer”, designed by David Howse in June 1982. This was an exact functional copy of the IBM PC 5150 model except (more…)

Cambridge Z88

The Cambridge Z88 computer is a lightweight, compact A4-size notebook with an integrated word processor / spreadsheet / database application called PipeDream (functionally equivalent to a 1987 BBC microbuse called Acornsoft View Professional), and as many other applications and utilities, such as a Z80 version of the BBC BASIC programming language. The Z88 grew out of Sir Clive Sinclair’s Pandora laptop project, which was being developed at Sinclair Research in the mid-1980s. The machine was launched on Which Computer? Performance on February 17, 1987.

The Z88 is a 0.9 kg laptop, based on a low-power CMOS version of the popular Zilog Z80 (more…)


The Bondwell-2 was an old laptop running the CP / M operating system. Introduced by Bondwell in 1985, it comes with a Zilog Z-80 processor running at 4 MHz, 64 KB of RAM and 4 KB of ROM. It had a 3.5 “floppy drive, very unusual for a CP / M system, as this operating system was largely out of date by the time the 3.5” drives were introduced. The main attraction of the Model 2 was its price, at $ 995, it also included the full range of MicroPro CP / M software, including WordStar.

Also unusual for a CP / (more…)


Bondwell was a manufacturer of personal computers in the United States and Hong Kong during the 1980s (1981-1993). In the early 1980s, Bondwell sold a line of Z80, CP / M-80 based on Osborne-like luggage such as the Bondwell-12, Bondwell-14 (1984) and Bondwell-16 (1985) models. An outstanding feature in these was an integrated speech synthesizer. Their prices were exceptionally affordable for the time, although significant compromises were made in terms of durability, for example the chassis was rather fragile plastic, below the usual robustness of luggage. The fanless power unit, located under the motherboard, has often caused problems. The choice of (more…)

Bobst Graphic Scrib Portable

The Scrib was an early portable computer made by the Swiss company Bobst Graphics, with support from Jean-Daniel Nicoud. The Scrib was designed as a portable drafting tool for journalists : it was linked to an acoustic coupler, enabling reporters to send their articles over standard phone landines. Its integrated tape recorder was able to save up to 8000 characters on a microcassette, with second socket available for quick rewinding of the tape. The screen was mounted inside the case of the computer, at the rear, and displayed characters which were shown to the user on a foldable mirror. The Scrib (more…)

Atari STacy

The STacy was a portable version of the Atari ST. Originally designed to run on 12 standard C flashlight batteries for portability, when Atari finally realized how fast the machine was using a set of batteries (especially when the rechargeable batteries of the time were providing insufficient power through compared to the alkalis provided) the battery compartment cover closed. The STacy has features similar to Macintosh Portable, a version of their Macintosh computer that contained a built-in keyboard and monitor. Thanks to its built-in MIDI, the STacy has been successful in running musical sequencer software and as a musical instrument controller (more…)

Atari Portfolio

The Atari Portfolio (aka Atari PC Folio) is a IBM PC-compatible palmtop PC, and was released by Atari Corporation in June 1989, making it the world’s first palmtop computer.

DIP Research Ltd. based in Guildford, Surrey, UK released a product in the UK called the DIP Pocket PC in 1989. Soon after its release, DIP licensed this product to Atari for sale as the Portfolio in the UK and US. In Italy, Spain and Germany, it was originally marketed as PC Folio instead. DIP officially stood for “Distributed Information Processing”, although secretly it actually stood for “David, Ian and Peter”, the three (more…)

Atari Portfolio

The Atari Portfolio (aka Atari PC Folio) is an IBM PC compatible handheld, and was released by Atari Corporation in June 1989, making it the world’s first handheld computer.

DIP Research Ltd. based in Guildford, Surrey, UK launched a product in the UK called DIP Pocket PC in 1989. Shortly after its release, DIP authorized Atari to sell this product as Portfolio in the UK and US -United. In Italy, Spain and Germany, it was initially marketed under the name PC Folio. DIP officially meant “Distributed Information Processing”, although secretly it meant “David, Ian and Peter,” the three founding members of the (more…)

Apricot Portable

The Apricot Portable was a computer device manufactured by Apricot Computers, and was released in November 1984. It was Apricot Computers’ first attempt at making a laptop, which was gaining popularity at the time. Compared to other notebooks of its time such as the Compaq Portable and the Commodore SX-64, the Apricot Portable was the first computer to have an 80 and 25 line LCD display and an input / voice recognition system. exit. Apricot Computers has designed the Apricot Portable for transportability and easy access anywhere. It consisted of a control panel and a wireless infrared keypad that constituted its (more…)

Amstrad NC100

The Amstrad NC100 notebook is an A4 format Z80 notebook, launched by Amstrad in 1992. It includes 64 KB of RAM, Protext word processor, various organizer functions (calendar, address book and time manager). ), simple calculator, and a version of the BBC BASIC interpreter. Its display consisted of 80 columns of 8 characters, and not backlit, but the NC100 could run up to 20 hours on four standard AA batteries. There was an RS232 serial port, a parallel port for connecting a printer, and a PC card slot, through which the computer’s memory could be expanded to 1 MB.

The NC100 has (more…)


The AlphaSmart was a brand of battery powered, portable word processing keyboards manufactured by NEO Direct, Inc. (formerly Renaissance Learning, Inc., formerly AlphaSmart, Inc., formerly Intelligent Peripheral Devices, Inc.). The models were abandoned by the company at the end of September 2013, although they still offer support and software to existing users.

The AlphaSmart was a keyboard entry device that allowed a person to work on the move, much like a laptop, but strictly for word processing, as it basically functioned as a simple digital typewriter. The Dana (one of the latest devices manufactured by AlphaSmart, Inc.) was an exception, as this (more…)

Actrix (computer)

The Actrix computer, released in 1983 by Actrix Computer Corporation, was a Zilog Z80 transportable personal computer running CP / M-80 V2.2. It was originally published as Access Access, manufactured by Access Matrix Computer Corporation, but the company and its product have changed names after brand conflicts.

Access Computer was the common name for the Access Matrix, a portable laptop introduced in 1982 by a US computer company, Access Matrix Corp. (AM CORP on FCC documentation).

The access computer had two 5.25-inch floppy disk drives (either 320k-DS or 168k-SS), a removable keyboard, a built-in 7 “amber CRT monitor, and an 80-chip Epson MX80 (more…)

Portable computer

A laptop was a computer designed to be easily moved from one place to another and included a screen and a keyboard. The first notebook marketed was the 50-pound IBM 5100, introduced in 1975. The following major notebooks were Osborne 1 (1981), based on CP / M Osborne from Osborne, and Compaq Portable (1983). These “luggable” have missed the next technological advance, not requiring an external source of energy; this feature was introduced by the laptop. Laptops have been followed by lighter models, so that in mobile devices from the 2000s and by 2007 smartphones have made the term almost meaningless. (more…)

Sony NW-A800

The Sony NW-A80x, is a series of network-compatible Walkman video players, announced in late 2006 and released on May 19, 2007. On May 19, 2007, only the NW-A806 (4GB) and NW-A808 (8GB) models been released. On June 13, 2007, Sony announced that the NW-A800 (2GB) would be included in the series and would soon be available to the public.

The entire body is covered with metal and has a 2.0 “LCD screen covered with glass The three control buttons under the screen are arranged to form the Walkman logo on the front. the design of the NW A800 / 810 is in (more…)

Music for Stowaways

Music for Stowaways is the debut album by English electronic duo British Electric Foundation (BEF), released in the United Kingdom as a limited edition tape in March 1981 by Virgin Records, who also released an LP version of the album titled Music for Listening To later in the year with a different track and art cover, aiming its release for export markets. It was the first ‘minor project’ released by the BEF, based on Martyn Ware and Ian Craig Marsh’s Sheffield musicians. It was originally released concurrently with Ware and Marsh’s first single with BEF’s first major act, Heaven’s 17 ” (more…)


Walkman is a Sony brand tradename, originally used for portable audio cassette players from the late 1970s onwards. Sony Ericsson mobile phones introduced in 2005. The Sony Walkman was blue and silver which contained bulky buttons. It also included an extra audio jack so you could listen at a time. The original tape player Walkman, released in 1979, changed music listening. This could turn everyday tasks like commuting and running into pleasurable experiences, give commuters a sense of privacy, and add a soundtrack to urban surroundings. The Walkman was devised by Sony co-founder Masaru Ibuka, and first built by audio-division engineers (more…)

Portable CD player

A portable CD player is a portable audio player used to play compact discs. The first audio player released was the Sony D-50.

The basic features of a portable CD player are as follows: The 8 cm CD offers a smaller alternative to the normal 12 cm CD (although with a lower capacity). There are miniature players that only play this format.

Like a normal size CD player, a portable CD player reads bumps and grooves with a laser. With its photocell (a device that detects any kind of light reflection from a certain area), it determines whether there is a reflection of (more…)

Personal stereo

A personal stereo is a portable audio player that uses an audio cassette player, a battery and, in some cases, an AM / FM radio. This allows the user to listen to music on the headphones while walking, jogging or relaxing. Personal stereos usually have a belt clip or shoulder strap so a user can attach the device to a belt or wear it on their shoulder. Some personal stereos came with a separate battery case. The first personal stereophonic channel was the Stereobelt invented and patented by the West German-German inventor Andreas Pavel in 1977. Pavel attempted to commercialize this (more…)

Last position memory

Last position memory is a function that allows media playback devices to continue from where a user pauses playback or when the unit is turned off.

The memory of last position goes back to the time of the supports on magnetic tape. For example, cassette tapes and cassettes automatically have this property since they automatically remain where they are when they are paused or stopped. Indeed, tape media can be started and stopped and left at any point, and moved to any point, the only problem being that the more point you want to go into a recording, the more you need (more…)


Lasonic is a product model and an old brand of consumer electronics, including boom boxes manufactured in the mid-1980s through the mid-1990s by Yung Fu Electrical Appliances based in Tainan City, Taiwan. Other products include DVD home theater systems, TVs, DVD players, CD and cassette players, FM radios, speakers, external storage devices, and more. (MP3 / MP4 players, digital photo frames). Yung Fu Technology Electrical Corporation exports products to Lasonic Electronics Corporation which began its portable audio business in 1978 (and when the brand “LASONiC” was renewed and renewed in 2011).

In 2008, Lasonic Electronics Corporation of Irwindale, California, USA, launched the (more…)


The Discman was Sony’s first portable CD player, the D-5 (North America and various other countries) / D-50, the first on the market in 1984, adopted for Sony’s full line of portable CD players . The name was changed to CD Walkman worldwide in 2000 with a revamped “Walkman” logo.

Prior to the development of the CD, cassettes were the dominant form of audio storage for the nascent portable audio industry. In 1979, Sony introduced the Walkman in Japan. As Sony began to realize the potential of the CD, the leaders pushed a way to give the CD player a market boost, (more…)

Digital Audio Tape

The digital audio tape (DAT or R-DAT) is a recording and signal playback medium developed by Sony and introduced in 1987. In appearance, it is similar to a compact cassette, using 3.81 mm / 0.15 The adhesive tape is surrounded by a protective envelope, but its size is approximately half that of 73 mm × 54 mm × 10.5 mm As the name suggests, the recording is rather than analogue.The DAT can record at sampling rates higher, equal to or lower than a CD (sample rate of 48, 44.1 or 32 kHz respectively) at a quantization of 16 bits. digital source (more…)


A boombox is a transistorized portable music player featuring one or two cassette tape recorder / players and AM / FM radio, generally with a carrying handle. Beginning in the 1980s, a CD player was sometimes included. Sound is delivered through an amplifier and two or more integrated loudspeakers. A boombox is a device typically capable of receiving radio stations and playing recorded music (usually cassettes or CDs usually at a high volume). Many models are also capable of recording tape from other sources. Designed for portability, boomboxes can be powered by batteries. The boombox was introduced to the American market (more…)

Portable media player

A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files. The data is stored on a CD, DVD, flash memory, microdrive, or hard drive. Most portable media players are equipped with a 3.5 mm headphone jack, which users can plug headphones into, or connect to a boombox or hifi system. In contrast, analog portable audio players play music from non-digital media that use analog signal storage, such as tape tapes or vinyl records. Often mobile digital audio players are marketed and (more…)

Portable audio player

A portable audio player is a personal mobile device that allows the user to listen to recorded audio while it is mobile. Sometimes, a distinction is made between a portable player, powered by a battery and one or more small speakers, and a personal player, listened with headphones.

Battery-operated portable voice recorders were introduced in the 1950s, initially in high-price reporters produced by Uher and Nagra. Low-cost units became available later. In the mid-1960s, Philips introduced the battery-powered compact cassette recorder, originally used for speech recording. At the same time, the 8-track player was introduced. It was very successful at the time, (more…)

IXI (digital audio player)

The IXI was the first digital audio player in the world and was invented by Kane Kramer in 1979. In 1981, Kramer filed a British patent. British Patent 2115996 was issued in 1985, and US Patent 4,667,088 was issued in 1987. In 1988, Kramer failed to raise the £ 60,000 required to renew the patent in the public domain, but he is still the owner. IXI was about the size of a credit card and had an LCD screen and navigation and volume buttons. Four prototype models were built and pre-produced during the APRS exhibition at Earls Court in London.

* Initial (more…)

Sony Watchman

The Sony Watchman is a range of portable televisions trademark and produced by Sony. The line was introduced in 1982 and discontinued in 2000.

The initial model was introduced in 1982 as the FD-210, which had a five-centimeter screen in grayscale. The apparatus weighed about 650 grams, with a measurement of 87 x 198 x 33 millimeters. The device was sold in Japan with a price of 54,800 yen. About two years later, in 1984, the device was introduced in Europe and North America.

Sony manufactured more than 65 Watchman models before it was discontinued in 2000. When new models were released after (more…)

Portable operation (amateur radio)

Portable equipment indicates a configuration that allows for relatively fast collection, transport and deployment of amateur radio equipment. Licensed operators often engage in portable operations using radio equipment when traveling. A portable station can be anything, from a small QRP (Low Power) radio and an antenna, to a high-end platform, depending on the space. On long-haul shipments, such equipment allows them to report progress, and sometimes to exchange safety messages along the way.

The “portable” operation is usually meant by amateur radio operators who add the suffix “/ P” to their callsign. The use of ‘/ P’ normally means that stations operate (more…)

Pocket video camera

A handheld video camera is a camcorder without a cassette that is small enough to be carried in one’s pocket. Most pocket camcorders are mobile phones of shape and size, unlike traditional cameras. A typical pocket video camera has an LCD screen of at least 1.5 “, the ability to capture high definition video (H.264 / MPEG-4 AVC) and standard video (or just standard video ), 128 MB of internal memory and a Secure Digital (SD) card or an internal memory card of at least 4 GB with SD card slot The battery can be supplied by a Ni-MH rechargeable battery (more…)

Nixie (drone)

Nixie is a small drone equipped with a camera that can be worn as a bracelet. Nixie can be activated on a quadcopter, fly in one of its preprogrammed modes to take photos or video, and then return to the user. In competition with over 500 other attendees, Nixie’s developers became the winning team in the development of Intel’s Make it Wearable contest on November 3, 2014, earning $ 500,000 in seed capital to develop Nixie into a product. . The developers have declared their goal of developing the drone in the next generation of point-and-shoot cameras. , the device was (more…)


The MTV-1 Micro TV was the second model of a pocket television. The first was the Panasonic IC Model TR-001 introduced in 1970. The MTV-1 was developed by Clive Sinclair (Sinclair Radionics Ltd). It was shown to the public at the London and Chicago trade fairs in January 1977 and went on sale in 1978. It lasted 10 years and included an injection of (approximately) British government money in 1976. The MTV-1 used AEG Telefunken black and white, electrostatic cathode ray tube (CRT), the smallest commercially available CRT product, and included a rechargeable NiCad battery 4 AA batteries. He measured and (more…)

Liquid contact indicator

A liquid contact indicator (LCI) is a small indicator that changes to another color, usually red, after contact with water. These indicators are small stickers that are placed on several points in smartphones and smartphones. In the case of a defective appliance, a personal service may check whether the appliance has been in contact with water. After contact with water or other liquids, the appliance is not covered by the warranty. Liquid contact indicators are also known, a water damage sticker, a water contact indicator, a liquid submersion indicator.

The main purpose of liquid contact is a defect in electronic devices. The (more…)

Handheld television

A portable TV is a portable device for watching television that usually uses a TFT or OLED LCD color screen. Many of these devices look like portable transistor radios.

In the 1970s and early 1980s, Panasonic and Sinclair Research released the first TVs that were small enough to fit in a large pocket; called the Panasonic MODEL TV TV TR-001 and MTV-1. Since LCD technology was not yet mature at the time, television was using a tiny cathode ray tube that set the record for being the smallest cathode ray tube on a commercial product. Later in 1982, Sony released the first (more…)

Portable DVD player

A portable DVD player is a mobile DVD player powered by battery in the format of a mobile device. Many recent players play files from USB sticks and SD cards.

Portable DVD players have been created to help DVDs away from home. They were created in 1998, introduced for the first time by Panasonic. They are convenient for using digital audio and video. Many consumers use portable DVD players for tracking, including on buses, and international flights.

The popularity of low cost portable portable DVD players in North Korea allows families to watch Chinese and South Korean shows on SD cards and USB (more…)

Body worn video (police equipment)

In body worn equipment, body worn camera, portable camera recording, portable digital recording device (abbreviated to PDRD) is a wearable audio, video, or photographic recording system used to be used in the case of police officers or other law enforcers. the military, but are designed to address specific requirements related to law enforcement.

The definition used in a market survey prepared for the United States Department of Justice in 2016 is that the body worn cameras are at least one of the two, and allow for audio / video footage. The cameras are usually located on the police officer’s chest or head (more…)

Body worn video

Body-worn video (BWV), also known as body and body-worn cameras, or portable cameras is a portable audio, video or photo recording system. Body-worn video has a range of uses and designs, two of which are well known. Other uses include action cameras for social and recreational (including cycling), commerce, health and medical use, journalism, citizen underwriting and covert surveillance. Recent research on the impact of body-worn cameras on law enforcement agencies shows mixed evidence of the impact of cameras on law enforcement and community confidence in the police.

Body-worn cameras are often designed to be worn in one of three places: on (more…)

Portable electronics

Mobile computing is a human-machine interaction that should be transported during normal use, allowing the transmission of data, voice and video. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware and mobile software. Communication problems include ad hoc networks and infrastructure networks, as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats, and concrete technologies. The hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.

Some of the most common forms of mobile computing are:

Many commercial and government field forces deploy a rugged laptop with their fleet of vehicles. This requires the driver’s devices, the safety device (more…)


A stopwatch is a pocket watch designed to measure the size of a time when it is activated when the room is deactivated. A large digital version of a stopwatch designed for remote viewing, as in a sports stadium, is called a chronometer. In manual synchronization, the clock is started and stopped by a person pressing a button. In fully automatic time, start and stop are triggered automatically by sensors. Synchronization functions are traditionally controlled by two buttons on the case. Press the top button to start the timer and press the button a second time to stop it, leaving the (more…)


A wound is an object around which lengths of another material (usually long and flexible) are wound for storage. Generally, a spool has a cylindrical core and walls on the sides to retain the material wrapped around the core. In some cases, the core is hollow, but other items may be mounted thereon, and handles may exist to mechanically rotate the coil.

The size of the nucleus depends on several factors. A smaller kernel would be more likely to be stored in a given space. However, there is a limit to how the stored material can be rolled up without damaging it (more…)

Man-portable air-defense system

Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs). They are a leading guide to low-flying aircraft, especially helicopters.

MANPADS were developed in the 1940s to provide military ground forces with the protection of enemy aircraft. They have received a great deal of attention because they have been used against commercial airliners. These missiles, which are available from a variety of sources, have been used successfully in the past. Twenty-five countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Sweden, and Russia produce man-portable air defense systems. Possession, export, and trafficking in such weapons are officially tightly controlled. The missiles are (more…)

Reynolds International Pen Company

In June 1945, a Chicago businessman, Milton Reynolds, was in Buenos Aires, Argentina, when he encountered the first commercially available ballpoint pen, the Biro pen. In October 1945, Milton Reynolds was able to debone the Biro pen and was the first to manufacture and sell ballpoint pens in the US market. The “Reynolds Rocket” pen was introduced at the Gimbel department store in New York, selling pens worth $ 100,000 on the first day. In 1945, the demand was 30,000 pens per day, making it the number one American ballpoint pen. However, in three years, the price of the pen has (more…)