Digital textbook

A digital textbook is a digital book or e-book intended to serve as text for a class. Digital manuals may also be known as electronic manuals or electronic texts. Digital textbooks are a major component of technology-based education reform. They can be used as texts for a traditional face-to-face course, online course or diploma, or Massive Online Courses (MOOC).

Digital textbooks have many potential benefits. They can offer lower costs, make it easier to track student progress, and are easier and cheaper to update when needed. Open source electronic textbooks can offer the possibility of creating free, editable textbooks for basic subjects, (more…)

Digital Ocean

Digital Ocean, Inc., was a maker of wireless products from 1992 to 1998, when it was bought by Harris Semiconductor and its assets made part of Harris’s Intersil Division, which was spun off in 1999 into Intersil Corporation. The company was founded in May 1992 by Jeffery Alholm and headquartered in Lenexa, Kansas. Several contracts with Apple Inc., <ref name=”PR Newswire via The Free Library. 3 Nov 1995. Digital Ocean Licenses Apple’s Newton Technology; Increases Durability and Adds Communications Features to Target Vertical Markets, by Unknown Author”> AT&T, Aironet Wireless Communications (later acquired by Cisco as its wireless LAN division), Harris (more…)


The CrossPad is an electronic notepad product introduced in 1997 by American fountain pen manufacturer A. T. Cross Company and IBM. The special pen contains a small radio transmitter which tells the pad where it is written. To provide the user with feedback on where it is written, the pen also contains ink and the user write on writing paper placed on top of the CrossPad. There is a small display at the bottom of the device that provides feedback about commands given, and there are six buttons which can be activated using the special pen.

In September 1998, the Cross Company (more…)


A fitter is a computer with specializations to work in a car, such as compact size, low power consumption and some custom components. The actual computer hardware is usually based on standard PCs or mobile devices. Because they are computer based, they usually have many standard interfaces such as Bluetooth, USB and WiFi. The first carpenter was introduced by Clarion Co. on December 4, 1998, although onboard diagnostics have been used since the 1980s to accurately measure the amount of fuel entering the engine when carburetors became too complex. A challenge to installing a computer in a car is the power (more…)

Bring your own device

Bring your own device (BYOD) – also called bring your own technology (BYOT), bring your own phone (BYOP) and bring your own personal computer (BYOPC) – reference to the policy allowing employees to bring personal devices (computers) laptops), tablets and smartphones) at their workplace, and use these devices to access information and business applications. The phenomenon is commonly known as computer consumerization. BYOD is making significant progress in the business world, with approximately 75% of employees in high-growth markets such as Brazil and Russia and 44% in developed markets already using their own technology at work. Surveys have indicated that companies (more…)


Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (shortwave UHF radio waves in the 2.4 to 2.485 GHz ISM band) from fixed and mobile devices and creating networks. personnel (PAN). Invented by Dutch electrical engineer Jaap Haartsen, working for telecom provider Ericsson in 1994, it was originally designed as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), which has more than 30,000 member companies in the telecommunications, IT, networking and consumer electronics fields. The IEEE has standardized Bluetooth as IEEE 802.15.1, but no longer maintains the standard. Bluetooth (more…)


The BlackDog is a standalone handheld computer with a built-in biometric fingerprint reader, developed in 2005 by Realm Systems, which is plugged in and powered from the USB port of a host computer using its peripherals for seizure and exit. It is a mobile personal server that allows a user to use Linux, its applications and data on any computer with a USB port. The host computer’s monitor, keyboard, mouse, and Internet connection are used by the BlackDog for the duration of the session. Because the system is stand-alone and isolated from the host, requiring no additional installation, it is possible (more…)

Barcode system

A barcode system is a network of hardware and software, consisting mainly of mobile computers, printers, handheld scanners, infrastructure, and supporting software. Barcode systems are used to automate data collection when manual recording is neither timely nor cost effective. Bar code systems are not radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, although companies that provide bar codes often provide RFID hardware and many companies use both technologies as part of management systems more resources.

In 1948, Bernard Silver was a graduate student at the Drexel Institute of Technology in Philadelphia. A store owner in the local food chain made a request to the Drexel (more…)

Associativity-based routing

Associative-based routing (commonly known as ABR) is a mobile routing protocol invented for wireless ad hoc networks or also known as ad hoc mobile networks (MANETs) and wireless mesh networks. ABR was invented in 1993, filed a US patent in 1996 and was granted the patent in 1999. ABR was invented by Chai Keong Toh during his PhD. at the University of Cambridge. In the 1990s, our Internet was still largely wired. Toh was working on another Internet – that of a mobile Internet quickly deployable, without infrastructure, self-organized and self-configurable. The challenges in such a network are the mobility of (more…)

Mobile computing

Mobile computing is a human-machine interaction by which a computer should be transported during normal use, allowing the transmission of data, voice and video. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware and mobile software. Communication problems include ad hoc networks and infrastructure networks, as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats, and concrete technologies. The hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.

Some of the most common forms of mobile computing devices are: Other types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s, including:

Many commercial and government field forces deploy (more…)